PRINCIPLES and APPLICATIONS of ARTHROSCOPY


Arthroscopy is a surgical operation which enables orthopedic surgeons to see problems inside joints, to diagnose and to treat them. The word "arthroscopy" comes from two Greek words: 'arthro,' meaning "joint," and 'scope,' meaning "look."

Arthroscopy helps the orthopedist to see the structures inside the joint in detail on a television screen by entering through small holes opened on the skin by using a device, which is as thin as a pencil although its size varies according to the joint size (knee, wrist), including a lens and lighting system and a camera attached to these.

In order to diagnose joint injuries and diseases; patient's history, physical examination and x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography can be required. After these, arthroscopy can be applied for a more specific diagnosis or treatment.

Today, six joints are examined by arthroscopy. These are knee, shoulder, elbow, hip, wrist and ankle joints.

The diseases which are often treated with arthroscopy are; meniscus ruptures at knee, anterior and posterior cruciate ligament ruptures, intraarticular fractures, cartilage lesions, repetitive dislocations in shoulder, rotator cuff ruptures, shoulder impingement syndrome, membrane (synovia) diseases in all joints and joint mice, nerve compression in wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome). Although arthroscopic surgery is seen as easier than open surgery in terms of fast recovery, it requires general, regional or local anesthesia application according to state of the disease and use of special tools in surgery room conditions. One incision (about I cm) for enabling the arthroscopy device to enter and several small incisions for other therapeutic tools may be opened. Although it is very rare (less than I% of the operations); complications such as infection, deep venous thrombosis, excessive swelling and bleeding in the joint, vessel and nerve injuries and problems occurring in the tools may be seen.

QUADRICEPTS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

10 TIMES X PER DAY


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Lay down on your back as one of your knees is bent and other is straight. Lift your straight leg as much as one hand span, hold it in this position for approximately 10 sec. and then lower it. Repeat the same movement with other leg as well.

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Lay down face downwards. Put some pillows under your feet as support. In this position, press your feet to the support by respectively stretching your knees. Repeat this 10 times for each.

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Lay down on your back. Put some pillows under your knees as support. Press your knees to the support while lifting your feet up. Repeat this 10 times for each.

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Repeat the same movement by putting weight on your ankles and lifting your feet individually. Repeat this 10 times for each.


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